Constitution of India
Children on account of age are vulnerable and require special care and protection at many levels.. They have certain special rights and legal entitlements that are being acknowledged nationally and internationally. The constitution of India recognized the rights of children for the first time and included several articles dealing with their liberty, livelihood, and development of childhood, non-discrimination in educational spheres, compulsory and free education and prohibition of their employment in factories, mines and hazardous industries. Some of the fundamental rights which are also available to the children are:
Article 14: Right to equality
Article 15: Right against discrimination
Article 15(3):State to make special provision for women and children
Article 21: Protection of life and personal liberty
Article 23: Right to be protected from being trafficked and forced into bonded labour
Some specific rights especially application on children are:
Article 21 A: Right to free and compulsory elementary education to all children of the age 6-14 years
Article 24: Right to be protected from any employment in any factory or mine engaged in any hazardous employment till age of 14 years. Prohibition of employment of Children in factories, etc.
The Constitution of India also bestows certain duties on the state for preparing beneficial provisions for the up-lliftmentof weaker sections of society especially children . These have been mentioned under Chapter IV: Directive principles of state policy and include:
Article 39 A: Ensures that the health and strength of workers, men and women and tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter employment or vocations unsuited to their age or strength.
Article 39 F: Ensure that children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.
Article 46; promote with special care the educational and economic interest of weakersections of the people and in particular of the scheduled Castes and Scheduled tribes and protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.
Article 47: Raise the level of nutrition and standard of living of people and to improve public health