United Nation Convention on Rights of the Child(UNCRC)
United Nation Convention on Rights of the Child is an international treaty which recognizes that all children are born with fundamental freedoms and they have some inherent rights. This convention adopted by UN General Assembly on 20th November, 1989 is a comprehensive international instrument that codifies rights of the child. India ratified UNCRC on 11th December, 1992. UNCRC is considered as a landmark treaty for children as it provides care and protection of every person under 18 years of age. It is unique because it is comprehensive, universal, unconditional and holistic. The Convention requires that state parties must ensure that all children without any discrimination shall have :-
Right to Survival: Right to survival includes those basic or fundamental rights which are essential to survive. A child's right to survival begins before a child is born. Hence, the right to survival is inclusive of the right of the child to be born, right to minimum standards of food, shelter and clothing and the right to live with dignity. It also includes right against sex selective abortion or infanticide or feticides, timely immunization, breast feeding, right to good health, healthy environment etc.
Right to Protection: Right to protection emphasizes on children's right to be prevented and protected from violence, exploitation, abuse and any type of ill treatment at home or elsewhere. It covers issues of child labour, child marriage, child trafficking, street children, juvenile delinquency, children in conflict with law, child sexual abuse, child pornography, bonded labour, begging, drug abuse etc
Right to Development: Children have the right to all forms of development: emotional, mental and physical. Emotional development is fulfilled by proper care and love of a support system, mental development through education and learning and physical development through recreation, play and nutrition.
Right to Participation: Right to participation refers to children's right to speak, express and participate in all the decisions and proceedings 9including judicial proceedings) that affect their lives directly or indirectly. The children need to be heard and given opportunity and platform to express their views, concerns, observations and suggestions. Forming children's groups in villages and habitations, mandating representation in the management of school or child care institutions and government created community based child protection mechanisms are some of the ways to promote children's right to participation.